Bareroot - dormant plants sold in fall, winter or early spring.
Bud - the beginning of a new flower or leaf.
Bud union - the point where the rootstock is grafted to the flowering variety. The bud union can be seen as an enlarged area at the base of the plant, whether purchased as bareroot or in a container. The bud union is also used as a gauge to mark planting depth.
Cane - stem from the base of plant that supports foliage and flowers.
Deadhead - to remove flowers after blooming. Deadheading sends energy to new flowers, not seeds.
Disbud - to remove smaller side buds on a stem to invigorate the main bud at the end of the stem.
Grade - Bareroot roses are graded according to the quality of their growth. Grades also designate the future size and productivity of the rose. The numerical grades are established by the American Association of Nurserymen and should be noted on the plant tag.
The three grades are:
- #1 is the best of a variety. Three or more healthy canes and a strong root system are essential.
- #1.5 roses have two or more thin canes and usually take longer to develop.
- #2 roses have one or two small thin canes and may require extra care to establish.
Graft - to join a scion (top part or stem) with a stock (bottom part or a stem with roots) to create a new plant.
Hip - seed pod that forms from a spent blossom. Hips provide another bit of interest in fall after the blooms have gone.
Hybrid - created by crossing two different plants to combine their most desirable characteristics. Roses are hybridized to create new colors, increase disease resistance, improve fragrance, and manipulate size.
Own root - the entire plant is of the same variety (not grafted).
Rootstock - hybrid roses are grafted onto a host set of roots. The rootstock is selected for strength and hardiness. The roses that bloom from a rootstock are not the most desirable for most rose gardeners.
Sucker - a stem that grows out and up from the rootstock (therefore not from the grafted variety). Usually coming up from under ground level, it's highly recommended that they be removed so that the plants energy is directed to the desired plant.